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Journal of Applied Nutritional Sciences
An International Journal
               
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Forthcoming
 

 

Review of effect of regulatory and Preventive strategies on obesity

Sahar Saad Zaghloul, Hebatuallah Awad, Nagwa Khallaf,
Abstract :
Obesity has been dramatically on the rise over the last 25 years worldwide. Interventions to halt the problem have been implemented and tested at individual, community and legislative levels. The aim of the current review is to evaluate the regulatory and preventive interventions. Method: Medline, PubMed and google scholar were searched for the keywords: obesity, intervention, outcomes, strategies, healthy eating, and regulatory strategies. 132 papers and reports were identified and 36 papers were selected for the current review to describe the outcomes of these strategies according to the results of the studies that measured their effectiveness in reducing obesity rates. Results: Unhealthy food exposure was implemented mainly by regulatory strategies such as increase taxation, regulation of food marketing, and elimination of unhealthy food from food assistant programs as well as educational strategies through food labeling. Regulatory strategies have shown reduction in consumption or purchase however little impact on weight reduction has been reported which may require more time. Volume-based taxation of SSB at 20% increase reduces purchasing and consumption of SSB with reasonable weight reduction. On the other hand, strategies to increase availability and access to healthy food through incentives offered at individual level in food programs or at food producers to produce more healthy products reported more effect on both consumption and weight reduction. Also healthy food price reduction or its availability through food programs is the most effective strategy to increase healthy food consumption and subsequent weight reduction. Unhealthy food advertisement, although not fully tested but is expected to work with children on long term. Conclusion: Comprehensive strategies focused to reverse the obesogenic environment still require time to show its effect on weight reduction. However increase availability and access to healthy food, reduction to exposure to unhealthy food and promotion of physical activity have potentials to reduce obesity.

 

Manifestations of Nutrients Deficiencies among Adolescent Females Case from Secondary Schools, Dammam, Saudi Arabia: A Cross-sectional Study

Omar Ibrahim Abuzaid, Shrifah Abdulaziz Alkhalaf, Hanoof Abdulrahman Alessa, Sumayyah Abdulmohsen Al-Ghamdi, Sarah Showgi Bawazier, Mohamed Saleh Badr Eldin,
Abstract :
This study aimed to assess the prevalence of nutrient deficiencies among Saudi female adolescents. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 225 Saudi adolescent females aged 15 to 18 years, and the subjects were recruited from secondary schools at Dammam. Data about food habits was collected, and the 24-hour recall method was used for determining nutrient intakes. The weight and height of the subjects were assessed, and BMI was calculated. The results showed that 58.2% of females had normal body weight, 20.4% were overweight, and 13.3% had obesity. Unfortunately, all participants consumed fast foods; and most of them consumed them at least once a week (48.7%). Moreover, carbonated beverages were mostly consumed by female adolescents. There was a serious deficiency in the intakes of fibre, niacin, calcium, thiamin and vitamin A, as less than 20.0% of total subjects satisfied only 50% or more of their requirements. In addition, only 7.3% of females satisfied 75.0% to 100.0% of their carbohydrates requirements, and the rest of the subjects intake was less than that 75%. In conclusion, more than two-thirds of adolescents had a serious deficiency in the intake of vitamin A, fibre, calcium, niacin and thiamin.

 

Effect of Maternal Dietary Consumption Pattern of Thyme and Sesame on Fasting Blood Glucose among Women with Gestational Diabetes

Mai Abd-Alkhalik Gharib, Hala Mohamed Ayoub, Tunny Sebastian Purayidathil, Norah Hassan Al-Qahtani, Reham Shawky Metwally,
Abstract :
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common disorder in pregnancy. Thyme and sesame were reported to have antihyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, they have the potential to be an alternative and safe option for ameliorating GDM. The main objective was to find out the association between the dietary consumption of thyme and sesame and glucose homeostasis among GDM women. A cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 129 pregnant women. A questionnaire was constructed to cover different variables. Also, biochemical analysis for oral glucose tolerance, fasting blood glucose, and random blood glucose levels were measured. Results showed an inverse association between dietary intake of thyme or sesame seeds and fasting glucose levels (P<0.001) in both pregnant women with GDM and normal pregnant women. A gradual decrease in the blood glucose levels was observed with an increase in the frequency of the consumption of both thyme and sesame (p 0.001>). Moreover, the results showed that the higher the consumption of both thyme and sesame seeds, the lower the weight gained during pregnancy (P<0.001 and 0.037, respectively). This association was observed only in pregnant women with GDM. In conclusion, the findings of this study suggested that dietary consumption of thyme and sesame seeds can be used as hypoglycaemic agents for women with GDM.

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